C++ has now been in use in the industry for about four decades. C++ is powerful, fast and efficient language. Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++ in 1979 by while he started working on C with classes. He added object-oriented programming to the C language making it a superset of the C language. The ++ ahead of C indicates that C++ is an increment over C. Till 1983, C++ was called C with classes, then it was renamed to C++. Let’s look over some of the advantages of C and then C++, which will help us to know the power of C++ over C.
Advantages of C
C is a structural programming language which allows a program to be broken down into many small programs called functions. It helps to tackle each problem separately and use the required result in the main function to accomplish the task.
C language can work on various enterprises. Till date C has been used in the gaming industry, web development, banking sector, making mobile applications, modelling and simulation, engineering and various other sectors.
C language is highly portable. It can work on Windows OS, Mac OS and Linux OS with some changes according to the operating systems. Desktop applications are generally made using C.
C and C++ are compiled languages. This means that before the code is launched as an application, the code is converted into binary file or a .exe file which makes it pretty light-weight. Thus it has an advantage over other scripting languages in terms of speed. C and C++ are also platform independent, i.e. it can run on Windows, Mac OS or Linux and not like C#.
Other than being platform independent, C is a low-level programming language compared to many languages. It is just a step up from assembly language. It is the lowest-level of all general-purpose, unless someone is talking in bits. This type of language is helpful, because it helps to make the program fast and robust.
C being the low-level language, helps in embedded programming. We come across many systems in our daily lives like mobile phones, smart watches, refrigerator, oven, washing machine, camera etc. All of these systems are embedded systems. Embedded C programming functions the processor in all of these systems.
Many embedded systems were developed using assembly language but due to the portability issues many programmers shifted to C programming in all these systems. Embedded C is the term used when C is used to develop the architecture of the hardware. C language has a library for embedded programming which can be included using the header files.
C is very fast compared to other languages. This quality is exploited in scientific computing and in companies which do a lot of number crunching. In the areas of simulation and modelling many programs are written in C. Fortran was widely used in this area, but with the advancement in technology, people are preferring C++ and python in this area.
C and C++ can deal with the memory management better than any of the other programming languages. So it gives you control of the stack of memory you have on your computer. It has dynamic memory allocation. It helps as it can be used to change the program to use less of the memory.
In C and C++ it is very convenient to allocate and de-allocate the memory when required. Memory issues are majorly faced in embedded systems. While in desktop applications, memory is not an issue in today’s generation.
While there are many advantages of C, C++ provides improvement over C with many features like classes, polymorphism, inheritance, exception handling mechanisms etc. All of these helps in making a program better by adding removing some shortcomings from C. To say that, C++ has many theoretical advantages over C, like how the code is written. As it is The language built over C, all of its industrial advantages are the same. Still, let’s see some advantages of C++ over C.
Advantages of C++ over C
C++ has all the advantages of C when compared to other languages. The important thing that separates it from C is its vast standard template library. It is very useful when working for large projects. It provides restricted syntax which can be useful when a lot of people are working on a single project.
C language is procedural, it does not support classes and objects like C++. On the other hand, C++ can be programmed in procedural format despite being an object-oriented language.
C++ support user defined operators and function overloading. So we can define our own data type, with its operators and functions. Now these data types are useful as there are many objects other than integer, character, string, floating numbers, arrays. We can make our own class of say human. Then we can define its features as height, color, hair, eyes as its data items.
The methods like sit, run, talk can included in the class. Now we have a human as a data type. So now every new human we define will have all of those features(if default is specified, or you can define it later). We can call all the methods to change the functionality of a particular human. In this way, you can make many other data types, for a different functionality.
While C is more toward lower level language, C++ has the benefits of both lower and higher level programming language. C++ is super fast and efficient than other higher level languages, making it the top notch for number crunching and for applications where high performance is required.
While there are many theoretical advantages of C++. The main advantage is that, C++ has more job opportunities than C. With the industry shifting towards object oriented programming. the focus is shifted from C to C++. Many libraries are formed which provide faster coding platform.
The code written in C++ can use a lot of libraries which makes code faster and efficient. These library functions are also written in C or C++. These functions are more efficient and optimized. So, it is better to use these functions rather than writing the same all by yourself (no harm in trying though).
Many industries like medical, gaming, desktop application, automation, hardware, robotics and many others use C++ due to its high performance and efficiency.
With all that being talked about, you can now go and start programming from our first programming tutorial on C++.